Friday, January 8, 2010

Origin and Development of Hotel Industry

Origin and Development of Hotel Industry
The hotel industry is perhaps one of the oldest commercial endeavors in the world. The emergence of the hotel as a significant commercial institution, however, is a development of the past few centuries and may be traced by example in the U.S., The location of the hotels had always been related to the transportation available. During colonial times hotel were usually situated in seaport towns, but by the end of the 18th centuries, when the stagecoach had increased travel within the U.S., many inns and taverns were constructed to offer lodgings along highway routes. After the construction of railways in the 19th centuries, largest hotels were built near railroad stations to accommodate railway travelers. Standards of comfort rose and service appreciable and in the large cities the types of lodging provided by some hotels became luxurious. the old Waldorf Astoria Hotel in new york city and the brown palace in Danver, Colorado, were among the first such luxury hotels, but their rates were too high for the average travelers. shortly before world war I, large hotel offering many services at prices within the reach of middle-income groups were constructed.

In the 1920's professional schools of the hotel management were created to prepare Americans for positions in the industry. Technical schools were also established to train skilled employees such as chefs. Today many colleges and universities offer a degree in a hotel administration, and trade schools provide courses in both hotel and restaurant work. Europeans-trained personnel also go to the US to work in the hotel industry, where their skills are welcomed.

The leader in the Hotel Industry was taken by the emerging nations of Europe, especially Switzerland, but the real growth of modern hotel industry took place in USA with the inception of "City Hotel" in New York in 1794. Another significant trend begun in the 1920s was towards corporate hotels than individual ownership of hotels. This was the result of the steadily increasing costs of building and operating hotels. Chain operations, started by the E.M. Statler during this era. It allows for efficient maOrigin and Develpoment of Hotel Industrynagement through the use of mass purchasing, central reservation and billings and extensive advertising and promotion champaigns. Today about 30% of all American hotels and motels are affiliated with chain or franchised groups.

During world war II the hotel business flourished. Existing establishments were occupied nearly to capacity at all times but no new hotels were built. Because of the growing importance of automobile travel soon after world war II, almost all the new hotels built then were located near highways. By the late 1950s motels began to rivals hotels by offering a broader range of services and facilities. Motels have increased greatly during the last 30 years, and the number of hotels had decreased somewhat. Today the more hotel, offering the convenience of the motel and the service of the hotel, is becoming popular. More efficient transportation and the growing importance of air travel have reduced the need for the accommodations along highways. Motor hotel are now being built within the boundaries of large cities and neat airports. To deal with stiffer competition, a growing trend has been for business travelers. Low hotel occupancy rates in the 1970s led to the development of budget motels, with cheaper lodging and fewer amenities. bed-and-breakfast and country inns have also growth in popularity since the 1970s; mostly located in rural areas, they offer a personal service and homey atmosphere.

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